Energy Saving", the situation has begun to improve somewhat. Energy surveys of state-owned enterprises were conducted, the potential for resource and energy conservation was clarified. According to experts, Russia has a huge (up to 40%) potential for saving energy resources, and the energy saving industry in Russia, despite all the measures taken, is one of the most underestimated. Factors influencing the further development of energy efficiency potential:
- Increase in energy prices;
- Further tightening of the requirements for energy saving of enterprises by the state;
- The appearance in recent years of relatively cheap ways to automate various processes at the enterprise both in the framework of saving energy resources and in the field of controlling their consumption;
- The economic situation is developing in such a way that increasing the efficiency of the enterprise, including by saving fuel and energy resources, allows you to gain a competitive advantage.
Factors hindering the development of energy efficiency in Russia:
- Climate (Limited possibility of using solar energy, wind energy, heat pumps);
Europe's gradual refusal to supply energy resources may force mining companies to reorient consumption within the country, which may hinder the development of energy-efficient technologies. (Why develop if there are so many resources. Plus, the lobby of mining companies will push only the growth of fuel and energy consumption volumes); An undeveloped sphere of public-private partnership in the field of energy services;
- Conservatism and lack of awareness of many business owners about the potential of energy saving, and the latest developments in this area. The desire to carry out purely formal energy efficiency measures, showing the effect on paper.
- The inertia of the economy as a whole (the desire to push the problem as far as possible for later);
- The general obsolescence of equipment in production, housing stock (often there is simply nothing to use energy-efficient technologies.
European experience of energy saving
European energy market and ours is that Europe buys a significant part of hydrocarbons from abroad, and therefore they began to think about energy efficiency there quite a long time ago. At the moment, there are a number of documents on the website of the European Commission on Energy. Such as the Roadmap for the Development of European Energy until 2050, an overview of the main trends in energy development until 2030, and the main trends in modern European society for energy conservation.
Among the main trends , you can specify the following:
- Gradual abandonment of hydrocarbons (by 2030, it is planned to almost double the volume of purchased resources, and by 2050 by another 15% compared to 2010);
- The transfer of urban, and later private transport to electricity, with the prospect of installing solar panels for charging cars;
- Gradual abandonment of nuclear energy;
- Widespread use of renewable energy sources;
- Implementation and use of energy efficiency standards in the construction of new facilities. (most buildings are designed according to energy consumption class A and automation requirements, for example, DIN EN 15232.);
- Using the "green standard" BREEAM and LEED in construction;
- Automation of accounting and control of energy consumption in households;
- Modernization of energy-intensive industries, their maximum transfer from the territory of the European Union to the countries of the Third world;
- Automation of energy consumption systems at the city level. (Lighting automation program for peak load distribution, heat consumption, etc.);
- Passive energy saving. Designing and creating houses with minimal consumption. Ideally, households should be equipped with renewable sources and pay for themselves.
All of the above clearly shows us the advantage of an integrated approach to energy saving and the need to adopt the European experience, optimizing it taking into account Russian realities.
Energy saving in the public sector
The state controls a large number of enterprises in all sectors of the economy. However, often the implementation of energy saving measures is formal and implemented on paper. The only way out of this situation is an Energy Service Contract (ENKO). But to date, the scale of the contracts concluded is minimal, and is mostly local in nature. The implementation of an energy service contract is a set of administrative, organizational, technical, economic solutions and competencies. And only when they are synchronized, we can talk about an energy service contract. Based on our realities, it becomes clear that without political will, the participants of the energy market will not make any changes that will not bring them quick benefits. And there are no incentives in the Federal Law 261 itself that encourage the use of energy services. Including in the field of banking regulation, provision of state services. Guarantees, etc.
- Raising money for energy saving in the public sector is quite a difficult task, requiring a lot of time and effort for various approvals;
- Energy saving programs are quite formal, and the energy service is not promising yet;
- The ENCO market is promising and it is necessary to keep abreast of the latest movements in this direction;
- It is necessary to work out the key points in the energy service in order to enter the market as soon as possible in case of a favorable situation.
Energy saving in the private sector.
Unlike the Public Sector, the private sector is more interested in energy conservation. A key role here should be played by raising the awareness of the potential customer about the latest trends in energy saving, automation, dispatching and digitalization and telemechanization. Also, since the law does not oblige private companies to conduct energy surveys, it is necessary to try to explain the need for an initial audit for further work in order to optimize energy costs.
The main tasks for the implementation of energy saving projects in the private sector:
- Development of methods to increase awareness of potential customers with new energy saving projects;
- An integrated approach to the energy saving system will give a synergistic effect, and can save time and money to the customer;
- It is necessary to differentiate products and form the most flexible product line based on the customer's requirements, his financial capabilities and the general condition of the facility;
- The energy survey should include the most detailed collection of information about the object;
- It is necessary to calculate together with the customer a business plan for energy efficient solutions in order to choose the optimal financing scheme for the project;
- Energy-efficient technologies are much more profitable to implement in the construction of new facilities than in the modernization of existing ones.
The main ways to save resources.
As practice shows, the main losses on the fuel and energy complex are related:
- with the human factor. (taps and windows do not close, lights do not turn off, etc.);
- with a general deterioration of the catch and units (old pipes, ventilation, tired and twisted wiring;)
- with low-quality or unskilled repairs and routine maintenance (Windows that do not meet the requirements for heat conservation are installed, the facade is not insulated, cheaper analogues of components are used);
- And only then with the absence of energy saving systems.
If paragraphs 2. and 3. do not directly relate to the introduction of energy-efficient technologies (but pointing them out to the customer is one of the most important responsibilities when conducting an energy survey), then the procedures for automating various systems are aimed at "combating" the human factor. The main objects for automation are:
- Light. (Presence sensors, automatic shutdown of lighting in rooms not intended for permanent residence of people, intelligent load distribution depending on the current needs of the facility, the use of modern light sources (LED, Plasma);
- Air conditioning and ventilation. (Creation of a centralized ventilation and air conditioning system controlled from one center, automatic maintenance of the set temperature and humidity based on environmental parameters, supply of energy-saving equipment for energy efficiency class A and higher);
- Heating (The inclusion of heating in a common intelligent system with ventilation will allow you to maintain a comfortable temperature without wasting extra resources);
? Dispatching. (Modern fuel and energy metering devices have an interface that allows you to connect to them for remote reading of indicators. This allows you to create a common resource accounting center, and automate the process of transmitting readings, keep consumption statistics, to correct peak loads);
- Security systems, video surveillance, monitoring. (They do not relate directly to energy efficiency, but their implementation allows you to reduce the number of serviced personnel and save money).
All of the above gives a synergistic effect and will allow for serious savings at relatively low costs, since the potential of resource saving in Russia is difficult to overestimate. And the main task of companies, both private and public, is to turn these savings into real money.
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